The World of the Small

Last summer I made the big switch to a mirrorless camera system. I loved my trusty old Nikon D500, but the weight of the camera and lenses was cumbersome when traveling, which I do a lot of. After a…


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Linux Intro

Any operating system consists of three layers , starting from the nearest to the resources — the kernel . Then, shell and the higher layer — End User Applications.

The first intention to build an operating system was 1964 by MIT, Bell Labs and General Electric corporation.It was called multics.

There were some issues in the latter , so Bell Labs (AT&T nowadays) worked on the project and built UNIX . It was rewritten in C language which made it more portable — working on multiple platform.

Unix was ported into universities , and students created their own tools and programs , then they decided to create their own OS containing these software — called BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution).

Later, because of some business issues , Bell Labs required to license the operating system’s source code to anyone who asked, then Bell Labs began selling UNIX as a proprietary product.

As a result , Ritchard stallman — a member of Bell Labs crew, decided to start

But Ritchard failed to establish a stable OS, or he couldn’t write OS just a collection of tools.

Eventually in 1991 , a student in Helsinki University — Linus Torvalds ,wrote his own kernel (Linux Kernel) which won Ritchard admiration , resulting to adopt it and establish the final product , a stable , multitasking and complete OS — GNU/LINUX. It was licensed under GNU GPL as an open source OS.

Developers and contributors from all over the world began to work on Linux for building their own distributions.

Operating system architecture

A full Linux distribution consists of the kernel plus a number of other software tools for file-related operations, user management, and software package management. Each of these tools provides a small part of the complete system.

There are thousands of distros , with three main common families — Debian , RedHat and SUSE.

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